Glossary of Terms



Huguenot: The first Puritans. French Calvinists who fought civil wars for their religion.

Puritan: a member of a group of Protestants that arose in the 16th century within the Church of England, demanding the simplification of doctrine and worship (or purification), and greater strictness in religious discipline. During part of the 17th century the Puritans became a powerful political party.

A Puritan
A Puritan

English Puritans: Although they were not labeled as a separate group of Christians in England, Puritans were known at first for their critical attitude towards the religious compromises made by Elizabeth I. Many puritan college graduates became priests at their local Anglican church to change the ceremonies held during worship. They encouraged direct personal religious experience, sincere moral conduct, and simple services. After James I became king in 1603, Puritan leaders asked him to grant several reforms. However, he rejected most of their proposal. Puritanism gained much popular support early in the 17th century. The government and the church hierarchy, however, became increasingly repressive, causing many Puritans to emigrate. Those who remained formed a powerful element within the parliamentarian party that defeated Charles I in the English Civil War. After the war the Puritans remained dominant in England until 1660, and were even more intolerant than the old hierarchy.

American Puritans:
Early in the 17th century some Puritan groups separated from the Church of England. Among these were the Pilgrims, who in 1620 founded Plymouth Colony. Ten years later, the first major Puritan migration to New England took place.
Richard Mather and John Cotton provided clerical leadership in the dominant Puritan colony planted on Massachusetts Bay. Thomas Hooker was an example of those who settled new areas farther west according to traditional Puritan standards. Most of these men held ideas in the mainstream of Calvinistic thought. In addition to believing in the absolute sovereignty of God, the total depravity of man, and the complete dependence of human beings on divine grace for salvation. in the 1700s Jonathan Edwards and Samuel Hopkins kept the Puritan faith alive. During the whole colonial period Puritanism had direct impact on both religious thought and cultural patterns in America. In the 19th century its influence could be seen at work by stressing the importance of education in religious leadership and demanding that religious motivations be tested by applying them to practical situations

–noun 1. a person who journeys, esp. a long distance, to some sacred place as an act of religious devotion: pilgrims to the Holy Land.
2. a traveler or wanderer, esp. in a foreign place.
3. an original settler in a region.
4. (initial capital letter) one of the band of Puritans who founded the colony of Plymouth, Mass., in 1620.
5. a newcomer to a region or place, esp. to the western U.S.

Red Scare:The term Red Scare has been retroactively applied to two distinct periods of strong anti-Communism in United States history:
first from 1917 to 1920, and second from the late 1940s through the late 1950s. These periods were characterized by
heightened suspicion of Communists and other radicals, and the fear of widespread infiltration of Communists in U.S.

Communism: 1. A theory advocating elimination of private property, a system in which goods are owned in common and are available to all as needed
2. A doctrine based on revolutionary Marxian socialism and MarxLeninism that was the official idiology of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, a totalitarian system of government in which a single authoritatian party controls stateowned means of production, a final stage of society in Marxist theory in which the state has withered away and economic goods are distributed equitably.
Hot Crucible
(Merriam-Webster dictionary)

Crucible: 1) a vessel of a very refractory material used for melting and calcining a substance that requires a high degree of heat
2) a severe test
3) a place or situation in which concentrated forces interact to cause or influence change or development (Merriam-Webster dictionary)

Salem Witch Trials: The Salem witch trials were a series of hearings before local magistrates followed by county court trials to prosecute people accused of witchcraft in Essex, Suffolk, and Middlesex Counties of colonial Massachusetts, between February 1692 and May 1693. Over 150 people were arrested and imprisoned, with even more accused who were not formally pursued by the authorities. The two courts convicted twenty-nine people of the capital felony of witchcraft. Nineteen of the accused, fourteen women and five men, were hanged. One man who refused to enter a plea was crushed to death under heavy stones in an attempt to force him to do so. At least five more of the accused died in prison.

Reverend: Not a title, but rather a style used as a prefix for christian ministers and clergy.

Poppet: A doll made of yarn in Puritan times. It was used as evidence against Elizabeth Proctor.

Brimstone: Sulfur. Deposits of sulfur often occur around volcanoes, and Hell was said to hold "fire and brimstone" for sinners. When God smote Sodom and Gomorrah, he sent a rain of fiery brimstone to destroy the city.

Lechery: 1. an unrestrained or excessive indulgence of sexual desire.
2. a lecherous act.

Sandwich: is a food item and therefore should not be defined on a wiki about puritans. Stop adding pointless information.

Witch: a person, now esp. a woman, who professes or is supposed to practice magic, esp. black magic or the black art; sorceress

Wicca: a religion influenced by pre-Christian beliefs and practices of western Europe that affirms the existence of supernatural power (as magic) and of both in nature and that emphasizes ritual observance of sesonal and life cycles. (merriam-webster)external image celtic-wicca.gif